COCHLEAR IMPLANTS : ADVANCES AND UPCOMING VARIANTS

Sivapuram Madhava Sai,

Final year,

Dr.Pinnamaneni siddhartha institue of medical sciences and research foundation

 

In a lay man’s terminology, a cochlear implant is inserting an electrical bug in the cochlea which stimulates the cochlear nerve and transmits the impulses into the brain which facilitates the hearing; Thanks to Dr.Willam House and Dr. Jon Doyle of Los Angles in 1961 who were the pioneers of the cochlear implant.  Later in 1964, Blair  Simmons and Robert J White of Stanford University implanted a six-channel electrode in the cochlea. This was the first time patients starting seeing a sense of hope for their hearing loss[1]

 

Cochlear implant as we see have two parts, smaller internal part which is implanted in the inner ear and an externally worn speech processor. The external speech processor has a battery, microphone, and a coil through which it perceives the sound; transfer these signals into the internal part where with the help of electrodes covert into electrical impulses. These electrical impulses transfer it to the brain through the nerve impulses.[2]

 

Initially, the cochlear implants are implanted to those individuals who are suffering from the severe hearing loss in both ears. The latest and most recent experimental trials that are done in 2014, where the implants were done to people who had acquired deafness, only in one ear and has developed it after learning speech. The advantage of a unilateral cochlear implant is sound localization, which is much better than any of the previous according to the studies.

 

The latest advancements are concentrating on hearing outcomes and lifestyle. The hearing outcomes are being improved by the use of the dual microphones called Auditory Sense Classifier which helps ion the better localization of the sounds in the mixed environments.

The development of wireless technology has a huge impact on the cochlear implants, these wireless technologies are being used to improve the lifestyles of the patients. These are being used to help them in busy environments such as classrooms, hotels, malls and other places. Here the mini-microphones are given to the opposite person where through the wireless microphones the sound can be easily processed. [3]

 

The very recent approval of Nuclear 7 sound processor by food and drug administration (FDA) by the United States of America, has made the dream come true situations for patients as they can make phone calls, listening to high-quality music and have face time calls directly.[4]

References:

1.Mudry A, Mills M. The Early History of the Cochlear ImplantA Retrospective. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2013;139(5):446–453. doi:10.1001/jamaoto.2013.293

2.Gabr TA. Mismatch negativity (MMN): indexing auditory discrimination in cochlear implants. Hearing, Balance and Communication. 2018;Feb;16(1):21–8.

3.Technological advancements in hearing implants. www.news-medical.net

  1. Nuclear 7 processor. www.cochlear.com

You may also like...

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.